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Incorporating Research in Turabian

Incorporating Research | Quotation and Block Quotes | Summary and Paraphrase | Tables and Figures

Incorporating Research

This section discusses reasons and ways to incorporate research. If you are looking to cite your research, we have pages on in-text citations, bibliographies and references lists, and examples of citing booksciting journals, citing multimedia, and citing miscellaneous sources.


Reasons to Incorporate Research

  • Credibility: 
    • Quality Sources: A paper’s argument depends on the quality of its sources, so scrutinize sources to find the most authoritative and trustworthy sources.
    • Primary Sources: Primary sources are the original source of information. Rather than using a secondary source, which refers to a primary source, get as close as possible to the original source of the information.
  • Consult the Field: If in doubt, ask a professor about the field’s respected researchers, journals, websites, and so on.
  • Plagiarism:
    • Plagiarism: If it’s not yours, cite it. If you quote or paraphrase a source, cite it. If you developed your thinking or argument because of a source, cite it.
    • Accidental Plagiarism: Even accidental plagiarism is plagiarism. Err on the side of caution and, when doing research, take careful notes that distinguish sources of information, page numbers, and whether the information is a direct quote, paraphrase, or summary.
    • Self-Plagiarism: Even if you wrote it in a previous paper, cite it. Even better, ask a professor first if he or she would allow a reference to a previous paper or submission.


Ways to Incorporate Research

Quotation and Block Quotes


    • A quotation brings a word-for-word copy from the source and inserts it into the paper. Most often, a quotation is only used when the exact wording of a source must be preserved.
    • Quotation marks clearly mark every direct quotation at the quote’s beginning and end: “quotation marks at the beginning and end.”


Run-In Quotation

  • If the quotation is four lines or less, simply include the quote in the paper and enclose the quote within quotation marks.
  • Seamlessly integrate the source material into the sentence, such as with a signaling statement that introduces the quote, like “Faulkner argues…” or “According to Williams…”


Block Quotes

  • If the quotation is five lines or more, set it off as a block quote, which is never enclosed in quotation marks.
  • Indent and single-space the block quote in a paragraph of its own below the sentence that introduced the quote. Then continue the text of the paper in a new sentence or paragraph beneath the block quote.

Summary and Paraphrase


  • A summary is a brief, condensed review. It converts the main idea of a source, a few pages, or a few paragraphs into this brief, condensed review.
  • The typical length for a summary of a source’s paragraph will be, at most, one-third the size of the original paragraph, or, at least, one sentence summarizing the original paragraph.
  • Quotation marks are not needed, but the original source must be clearly cited.



  • A paraphrase is the paper’s explanation of a source’s information. It explains one specific idea from a source using your own words.
  • The typical length for a paraphrase of the source’s information will be about the same length while focusing most on integrating and highlighting the key information.
  • Quotation marks are not needed, but the original source must be clearly cited.

Tables and Figures


  • A table is a list of data, whether numbers or text.
  • Tables display raw data in quickly referenceable ways, usually by arranging this data in clearly labeled columns.
  • Every table should have a number and short, descriptive title (place title flush to the left on the line above the table).



  • A figure is a visualization of data, like an illustration helps to relate a concept.
  • Figures display trends or relationships in data, usually by arranging these relationships in graphs, charts, drawings, photos, or maps.
  • Every figure should have a number and a caption (place these flush to the left on the line below the figure).


Citing Tables and Figures

  • Always cite the source of the data by including a “source line” at the bottom of the table or figure.
  • The source line should be formatted in the following way: Source(s): source title.
  • If the table or figure was copied from a source, simply follow the typical source line format shown above. Include the source’s full bibliographical information in your bibliography or reference list.
  • If the table or figure was reproduced or adapted from a source, include a statement in the source line that states something like, “data adapted from…,” or “map by….” Include the source’s full bibliographical information in your bibliography or reference list.


Material on this page adapted from Kate L. Turabian’s A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations. In manual, see 3.1-3.5, 4.2, 7.4-7.10, 8.1-8.4, 26.1-26.3.

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