Quick Guide to Turabian Formatting
- Usually, margins are 1 inch on all sides, but the rule of thumb is no less than 1 inch and no more than 1.5 inches.
- Our Turabian 8th Edition and 9th Edition sample papers use 1-inch margins.
Font and Typeface
- The preferred font is Times New Roman.
- The preferred size is 12 pt. font.
- The Turabian manual requires that font be readable and no smaller than 10 pt. font.
The entire paper should be double-spaced, apart from the following exceptions:
You can use our Pagination Tutorial for Turabian to help format your paper.
- Page numbers should begin on the first page of the paper’s text, not on the title page.
- Page numbers are most often placed on the top right of the page header or the bottom center of the footer.
Note: The table of contents (if a paper has one) should have its own page numbers in Roman numerals (i, ii, iii, ix, etc.).
Because the title page requirements may vary, we have a separate page, with visuals, for formatting a title page as either the typical title page for an undergrad paper or the typical title page for a dissertation/thesis.
Table of Contents
The table of contents should be structured around the main headings and subheadings of the paper. If it is long enough, a paper may require chapters with subdivisions.
Note: A table of contents usually has what’s called “Dot-Leader Tabs,” or a series of periods between the content title and its page number (Content Title…………………1).
Voice and Writing Style
- The paper should be written in the 3rd (he, she, it) person with an active voice.
- Unless a professor specifically asks for a paper in 1st (I, we) or 2nd (you) person language, avoid these in a paper.
Headings and Subheadings
- It can be helpful to divide the paper into logical pieces, almost like “mini-papers” within the larger paper.
- We have a separate page with visuals dedicated to understanding and formatting headings.
Incorporating Research and Quotations
Incorporating research that is credible and relevant helps to support and validate a paper’s argument.
With plagiarism, it’s better to be safe than sorry: if it’s not yours, cite it! Our page dedicated to incorporating research and avoiding plagiarism includes information on how to integrate summaries and paraphrases, quotations and block quotes, and more.
Notes-Bibliography Citation Style
- The humanities (literature, history, philosophy, religion, etc.) most often use this style of Turabian.
- We have an 8th Edition and 9th Edition sample paper in notes-bibliography style.
- Footnotes or endnotes are the preferred methods to indicate in-text citations throughout the paper.
- A bibliography is the preferred method for compiling sources in one list at the end of the paper.
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Author-Date citation style
- The sciences (social, natural, or physical sciences) most often use this style of Turabian.
- We have a 9th Edition sample paper in author-date style.
- Parenthetical citations are the preferred method to indicate in-text citations throughout the paper.
- A reference list is a preferred method for compiling sources in one list at the end of the paper.
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Turabian 9th Comparison Between Notes-Bibliography and Author-Date Style