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In-Text Citations General Format

Notes-Bibliography Style | Author-Date Style

Notes-Bibliography Style

The humanities (arts, history, religion, philosophy, etc.) typically use the notes-bibliography style for formatting in-text citations as either footnotes or endnotes with these citations compiled in the bibliography at the end of the paper.


See sample paper in notes-bibliography style.


General Format

  • The notes-bibliography style includes an in-text citation as a footnote or endnote each time a source is used.
  • Within footnotes and endnotes, the style allows for long-form notes, short-form notes, and the use of ibid.
  • This style compiles a paper’s sources in a bibliography at the end of the paper.


Footnotes or Endnotes

  • Footnotes: Footnotes are indicated with superscript numbers that follow the cited information and direct the reader to the footnote at the bottom of the page on which the information was used.
  • Endnotes: Endnotes are indicated with a superscript number that follow the cited information and direct the reader to the endnote the back of the paper in a separate section.
  • Which to Use: Footnotes are used most often because they can be easier for a reader to reference, rather than endnotes which require the reader to turn to the end of the paper. However, endnotes may be preferred if extensive footnotes would disrupt the reading of the paper.


Long-Form & Short-Form Notes

Turabian requires that the first time a source is cited, it is cited in the long-form. But each subsequent citation of that same source can be cited in the short-form.


Long-Form Notes

  • Includes: the author’s entire name, the source’s entire title, the place of publication, the publisher, the year of publication, and the page number(s) referenced.
  • Example: Author’s Full Name, Source’s Entire Title (City: Publisher, year of publication), page numbers.
    • All of the publication information should be placed in parenthesis.
  • Specific Examples: We have specific examples of long-form notes for all kinds of books, journals, multimedia, and miscellaneous sources.


Short-Form Notes

  • Includes: the author’s last name, the source’s title in a shortened but clear form, and the page number(s) referenced. The publication information is not necessary since it was previously provided.
  • Example: Author’s Last Name, Shortened Title, page number(s).
    • Note: A shortened title includes just the keywords from the title (4 words at most) to clearly indicate what specific source is being referenced.
  • Specific Examples of short-form citations for all kinds of books, journals, multimedia, and miscellaneous sources.


Use of Ibid.

  • Identical Citation Information: Turabian allows for the use of the abbreviation ibid. only when citing information that was identically cited in the immediately preceding note. If it is possibly unclear what the ibid. would refer to, it should be avoided. (Ibid. is short for ibidem, which is Latin for “in the same place.”)
  • How to Write Ibid.: 
    • In a note, ibid. should be capitalized, not italicized, and have a period at its end: Ibid.
    • In open text, ibid. is italicized and not capitalized: ibid.
  • Page Numbers with Ibid.: 
    • If the page number is also identical, just include the ibid.
    • If the page number is different, include the page number after the ibid., separated by a comma: Ibid., page.


Superscript Numbers

  • End of Sentence: Typically, superscript numbers are placed after a break in the sentence in which the source material was referenced (such as, after a comma, semi-colon, or period).
  • Middle of Sentence: If necessary for clarity, superscript numbers can be placed in the middle of a sentence and attached to a specific word or name.
  • Only One: Do not place a superscript number immediately after another (i.e. 1 2 or 3, 4). Since one note (one superscript number) can contain more than one source, include only one note (one superscript number) on a sentence or word.


Author-Date Style

The sciences (natural sciences, biology, medical sciences, etc.) typically use the author-date style for formatting in-text citations as parenthetical citations with these citations compiled in a reference list at the end of the paper.  Note that as of Summer of 2019, all programs of study at Liberty University Online except a few Government courses require the notes-bibliography format.


See our sample paper in author-date reference style.


General Format

  • Author-date style includes an in-text citation as a parenthetical citation each time a source is used.
  • Within parenthetical citations, the style is short and does not allow for the use of ibid.
  • This style compiles the paper’s sources in a reference list at the end of the paper.


Parenthetical Citation

  • Include: the author’s last name, the year of publication, and the page number(s) referenced.
  • An Example: (Author’s Last Name, year of publication, page number).
    • Note: If the author’s name was included in a run-in citation, then the parenthetical citation should only include the year of publication and page number(s). Place the parenthetical citation immediately after the author’s name in the run-in’s introductory phrase. For example: “Williams (2016, 20) writes…”
  • Specific Examples: We have specific examples of parenthetical citations for all kinds of booksjournalsmultimedia, and miscellaneous sources.


Multiple Sources in One Citation

  • Multiple Sources: One parenthetical citation can contain multiple sources by multiple authors or multiple sources by the same author.
  • Order of Sources: In this case, order the citations alphabetically by author, then chronologically by publishing date, or in order of importance.


Sources with Same Name

  • If different authors have the same last name, regardless of whether or not the publication year is different, always include each author’s first initial. If the authors also share a first initial, then include the entire name.
  • If the same author has published different sources in the same year, list these sources in the reference list (at the end of the paper) alphabetically by source title. Then, mark each parenthetical citation in the paper’s text with a letter (a, b, c, etc.) that corresponds to the alphabetical ordering of the reference list. This allows the reader to clearly confirm which source is being referenced in each parenthetical citation.


Missing Citation Information

  • Missing Information: If a source is not listed with the necessary citation information, the source can still be listed clearly in the following ways:
    • No Author Name: Substitute the source’s title in the place of the author’s name. If the title is more than four words, use four words from the title that most clearly represent the title.
    • No Publication Date: Substitute the designation n.d. in place of the date. This means “no date” and makes clear that a publication date was not provided.


Use of Ibid.

  • Do Not Use: The author-date style does not allow for the use of ibid.

Material on this page adapted from Kate L. Turabian’s A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations. In manual, see 15.3, 16.1-16.4,, and 18.1-18.3.