Leslie A. Hammer, PhD
Assistant Professor of Anatomy
- PhD in Anatomy, Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine
- MA in Physiology, Ball State University
- BS in Pre-Medical Preparation, Ball State University
- BS in Sport Administration, Ball State University
Prior to coming to Lynchburg, Dr. Hammer was an Assistant Professor of Anatomy at Louisiana State University-Health Sciences Center Shreveport, where she taught gross anatomy, histology, and neuroanatomy in the allopathic, and allied health curricula.
During her master’s program at Ball State University, she served as a teaching assistant in the physiology department. In 2010, she taught anatomy and physiology at Ivy Tech Community College in Indiana.
During her time at PSU-College of Medicine, Dr. Hammer was a teaching assistant for medical gross anatomy and neuroanatomy for first and second-year medical students. She also had the opportunity to be involved in the new Physician’s Assistant program teaching in the gross laboratory.
- Integument and Musculoskeletal Systems – IMSK
- Cardiovascular Respiratory Hematologic System – CVRH
- Gastrointestinal System and Nutrition – GINUTRI
- Endocrine and Reproductive Systems – ENDREP
- Nervous System/Head and Neck - NERVEHN
- American Association for Anatomy
- American Association of Clinical Anatomists
- Society of Ultrasound in Medical Education
- Hammer, L.A., Waldner, H., Zagon I.S., and McLaughlin, P.J., Opioid growth factor and low-dose naltrexone impair central nervous system infiltration by CD4+ T lymphocytes in established experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a model of multiple sclerosis. Experimental Biology and Medicine (2016) 241(1):71-8
- Hammer, L.A., Zagon I.S., and McLaughlin, P.J., Low dose naltrexone treatment of established relapsing-remitting experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J Multiple Sclerosis 2:136 (2015) 2376-0389
- Hammer, L.A., Zagon I.S., and McLaughlin, P.J., Improved clinical behavior of established relapsing-remitting experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis following treatment with endogenous opioids: Implications for the treatment of multiple sclerosis. Brain Research Bulletin 112 (2015) 42-51
- Kelly-Worden, M., Hammer, L., Gebhard, R., Shrader, L., Griffin, M., and Cooper, D., Antinuclear antibodies positive serum from systemic lupus erythematosus patients promotes cardiovascular manifestations and the presence of human antibody in the brain. J Pharm Bioallied Sci. 2014 Jul-Sep; 6 (3): 198-204
- Hammer, L.A., Zagon, I.S., and McLaughlin, P.J., Treatment of a relapse-remitting model of multiple sclerosis with opioid growth factor. Brain Research Bulletin 98 (2013) 122-131
- Ultrasound in osteopathic medical education