Leslie A. Hammer, PhD

Leslie A. Hammer, PhDAssistant Professor of Anatomy

(434) 582-7697


  • PhD, Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine
  • MA, Ball State University
  • BS, Ball State University
  • BS, Ball State University

Courses Taught

  • Integument and Musculoskeletal Systems – IMSK
  • Cardiovascular Respiratory Hematologic System – CVRH
  • Gastrointestinal System and Nutrition – GINUTRI
  • Endocrine and Reproductive Systems – ENDREP
  • Nervous System/Head and Neck - NERVEHN

Professional Memberships

  • American Association for Anatomy (AAA)
  • American Association of Clinical Anatomists (AACA)
  • Society of Ultrasound in Medical Education (SUSME)


Prior to coming to Lynchburg, Dr. Hammer was an Assistant Professor of Anatomy at Louisiana State University-Health Sciences Center Shreveport, where she taught gross anatomy, histology, and neuroanatomy in the allopathic, and allied health curricula. 

Dr. Hammer earned a BS in Sport Administration in 2004, a BS in Pre-Medical Preparation in 2007 and an MA in Physiology in 2010 from Ball State University. She earned her PhD in anatomy from Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine in 2015. During her master’s program at Ball State University, she served as a teaching assistant in the physiology department. In 2010, she taught anatomy and physiology at Ivy Tech Community College in Indiana.

During her time at PSU-College of Medicine, Dr. Hammer was a teaching assistant for medical gross anatomy and neuroanatomy for first and second-year medical students. She also had the opportunity to be involved in the new Physician’s Assistant program teaching in the gross laboratory. 


  • Hammer, L.A., Waldner, H., Zagon I.S., and McLaughlin, P.J., Opioid growth factor and low-dose naltrexone impair central nervous system infiltration by CD4+ T lymphocytes in established experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a model of multiple sclerosis. Experimental Biology and Medicine (2016) 241(1):71-8
  • Hammer, L.A., Zagon I.S., and McLaughlin, P.J., Low dose naltrexone treatment of established relapsing-remitting experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J Multiple Sclerosis 2:136 (2015) 2376-0389
  • Hammer, L.A., Zagon I.S., and McLaughlin, P.J., Improved clinical behavior of established relapsing-remitting experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis following treatment with endogenous opioids: Implications for the treatment of multiple sclerosis. Brain Research Bulletin 112 (2015) 42-51 
  • Kelly-Worden, M., Hammer, L., Gebhard, R., Shrader, L., Griffin, M., and Cooper, D., Antinuclear antibodies positive serum from systemic lupus erythematosus patients promotes cardiovascular manifestations and the presence of human antibody in the brain. J Pharm Bioallied Sci. 2014 Jul-Sep; 6 (3): 198-204
  • Hammer, L.A., Zagon, I.S., and McLaughlin, P.J., Treatment of a relapse-remitting model of multiple sclerosis with opioid growth factor. Brain Research Bulletin 98 (2013) 122-131

Research Interests

  • Ultrasound in osteopathic medical education