Leslie Hammer

Associate Professor of Anatomy


  • PhD in Anatomy, Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine
  • MA in Physiology, Ball State University
  • BS in Pre-Medical Preparation, Ball State University
  • BS in Sport Administration, Ball State University


Prior to coming to Lynchburg, Dr. Hammer was an Assistant Professor of Anatomy at Louisiana State University-Health Sciences Center Shreveport, where she taught gross anatomy, histology, and neuroanatomy in the allopathic, and allied health curricula.

During her master’s program at Ball State University, she served as a teaching assistant in the physiology department. In 2010, she taught anatomy and physiology at Ivy Tech Community College in Indiana.

During her time at PSU-College of Medicine, Dr. Hammer was a teaching assistant for medical gross anatomy and neuroanatomy for first and second-year medical students. She also had the opportunity to be involved in the new Physician’s Assistant program teaching in the gross laboratory.

Courses Taught

  • Integument and Musculoskeletal Systems – IMSK
  • Cardiovascular Respiratory Hematologic System – CVRH
  • Gastrointestinal System and Nutrition – GINUTRI
  • Endocrine and Reproductive Systems – ENDREP
  • Nervous System/Head and Neck – NERVEHN

Professional Memberships

  • American Association for Anatomy
  • American Association of Clinical Anatomists
  • Society of Ultrasound in Medical Education


  • Hammer, L.A., Waldner, H., Zagon I.S., and McLaughlin, P.J., Opioid growth factor and low-dose naltrexone impair central nervous system infiltration by CD4+ T lymphocytes in established experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a model of multiple sclerosis. Experimental Biology and Medicine (2016) 241(1):71-8
  • Hammer, L.A., Zagon I.S., and McLaughlin, P.J., Low dose naltrexone treatment of established relapsing-remitting experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J Multiple Sclerosis 2:136 (2015) 2376-0389
  • Hammer, L.A., Zagon I.S., and McLaughlin, P.J., Improved clinical behavior of established relapsing-remitting experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis following treatment with endogenous opioids: Implications for the treatment of multiple sclerosis. Brain Research Bulletin 112 (2015) 42-51
  • Kelly-Worden, M., Hammer, L., Gebhard, R., Shrader, L., Griffin, M., and Cooper, D., Antinuclear antibodies positive serum from systemic lupus erythematosus patients promotes cardiovascular manifestations and the presence of human antibody in the brain. J Pharm Bioallied Sci. 2014 Jul-Sep; 6 (3): 198-204
  • Hammer, L.A., Zagon, I.S., and McLaughlin, P.J., Treatment of a relapse-remitting model of multiple sclerosis with opioid growth factor. Brain Research Bulletin 98 (2013) 122-131

Research Interests

  • Ultrasound in osteopathic medical education