Module 3 Notes
Section 1
Section 2
Section 3

Motor Skills

Section 1, Article 4 - Dramatic improvements in gross motor skills are seen between the ages of 2 and 5. Gross motor skills include large body movements and enable children to run, climb, and jump. By age 5 children can typically ride a bike and pump a swing. Although the skills learned during this stage are impacted by the surrounding culture, these changes are the result of universal brain maturation, motivation, and the active play that is characteristic of young children. However, it is important to note that large individual differences in skills can be seen at this stage. While girls generally tend to have better limb coordination, boys will tend to develop more muscle strength making their gross motor control more advanced in comparison ().

On the other hand, fine motor control involves small body movements. Skills such as writing, tying shoe laces, and cutting food with utensils are common fine motor tasks of this age. These skills are limited by the development of the corpus callosum and will develop slower than gross motor skills. On average girls are 6 months more mature in the acquisition of their fine motor skills as compared to the boys in their same age group. Much of the focus in academics for preschoolers is geared toward learning fine motor skills. Creativity and imagination come very naturally to preschoolers, and they tend to enjoy self-expression through drawing, dance, music, and roleplay.

Cognitive Processes
Injuries and Maltreatment