Module 2 Notes
Section 1
Section 2
Section 3

Parental and Social Bonds

Section 3, Article 1 - After birth, Synchrony is one of the earliest expressions of social connection experienced by an infant and their caregiver. Synchrony is dynamic as infant and caregiver exchange responses in a coordinated manner. described this interaction as an “intricate dance that occurs during short, intense, playful interactions” with both parent and infant’s actions influencing the frequency and quality of future interactions (p.3). Synchronous interactions have also been found to predict the development of secure attachments during the early months of an infant’s life (). Much of an individual’s  is determined within the first two years of life. It was the work of John Bowlby () and () by which attachment styles have been articulated into four different categories: secure, avoidant, disorganized, and ambivalent.

During the first two years of life, attachment styles can be seen in various ways. A  provides a positive experience for the infant, through which he or she can easily and safely investigate the world around him or her. Insecure attachments include avoidant, disorganized, and ambivalent attachments. Avoidant attachments are characterized by avoiding connection with the caregiver and a lack of awareness of the caregiver’s presence.  is characterized by the infant’s inconsistent behaviors when the caregiver leaves and returns and resistant/ambivalent attachment is characterized by the infant’s anxiety and distress upon the caregiver leaving, and mixed emotions when the caregiver returns. Furthermore, infants are affected differently based on resiliency.

Secure Attachment Disorganized Attachment

In some cases, attachment is hindered by post-partum depression, multiple caregivers, inexperienced caregivers, caregivers who were abused as children, institutionalization, or even early (extended) hospitalization (, ). These individuals are at risk for having trouble with their emotions and relationships later on in life. Though some children develop a pathological response (reactive attachment disorder), most are resilient. Individuals with a disorganized attachment style tend to exhibit aggression, cognitive issues, and are at increased risk for behavioral issues and psychopathology (). While all infants will inevitably establish and maintain an attachment style, which will affect their relationships throughout life, it is possible to modify a current or learn a new style throughout life (; ).

Psychosocial Development in the First 2 Years of Life
Emotional Development