Course Descriptions

Required Courses

First Year - Fall
First Year - Spring
Second Year - Fall
Second Year - Spring
Third Year - Fall
Third Year - Spring

Elective Courses

Jurisprudence and Legal History
Family Law
Business Law
Constitutional Law and Jurisdiction
Administrative Law
Property Law
Trial Practice
Study Outside the Classroom
Other

First Year Required Courses - Fall

LAW 501    Foundations of Law I (2)
An introduction to the theological and philosophical foundations of law, including the Augustinian concept of antithetical thinking; the Creator/creature distinction; the development of higher/natural law thinking; the basis for the distinction between the judicial and prudential methods of analysis; the origins and jurisdictional boundaries of family, church, and state; the schools of jurisprudence; and the biblical basis for the fundamental principles underlying the several courses that comprise the basic curriculum.

LAW 505    Contracts I (3)
A study of the history of the development of the common law of contracts, and statutory variances from the common law, particularly the Uniform Commercial Code.  It focuses on legal theories for enforcing promises or preventing unjust enrichment; and principles controlling the formation, modification, and enforceability of contracts.

LAW 511    Torts I (3)  
A study of intentional torts against persons and property and the privileges thereto.  It focuses on the basic principles of negligence and other standards of care.

LAW 515    Property I (2)
A study of the fundamental precepts applicable to real and personal property.  Aspects of real property covered are possessory estates and interests, as well as joint and concurrent ownership.

LAW 521    Civil Procedure I (3)
An introduction to the rules and principles that dictate the process by which civil disputes are resolved by courts.  A study of the judicial process and of the relationship between the procedural and substantive law; pleadings; principles of jurisdiction, including jurisdiction over subject matter and persons, and service of process; and an introduction to the allocation of jurisdiction between the state and federal courts and the law to be applied in state courts and federal courts. 

LAW 525    Lawyering Skills I (2)
An introduction to the law library and basic legal research; interviewing clients; drafting basic pleadings; fundamentals of legal writing; fundamentals of statutory and case analysis; oral communication skills; drafting an objective memorandum of law.

First Year Required Courses - Spring

LAW 502    Foundations of Law II (2)
Prerequisite: Foundations of Law I.  An introduction to the historical and political background of the Western legal tradition; the impact of canon law and higher law influences on the development of the common law; the development of the respective jurisdictional bases of family, church, and state, and historical struggle between them; and the influence of Christian and secular worldviews on the application of American law, with a particular emphasis on the influences of the Founding Fathers and the drafters of the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution.

LAW 506    Contracts II (3)
Prerequisite: Contracts I.  A study of the legal principles dealing with performance, remedies for nonperformance or threatened nonperformance, excuses for nonperformance, rights of nonparties to enforce contracts, assignment of rights, and delegation of duties.

LAW 512    Torts II (2)
Prerequisite: Torts I.  A survey of the remaining issues in negligence including particular duties of landowners, damages, joint and several liability, and defenses.  It also deals with products liability, wrongful death, vicarious liability, and nuisance.

LAW 516    Property II (3)
Prerequisite: Property I.  A study of the rights, duties, and liabilities of landlords and tenants; acquisition, ownership, and transfer of property; rights of possession; donative transactions; issues in the conveyancing system; and governmental regulations.  

LAW 522    Civil Procedure II (2)
Prerequisite: Civil Procedure I.  A continuation of Civil Procedure I with a focus on pleadings, joinder of parties and claims, discovery, motions, trial, post-trial matters, and the binding effects of adjudications.

LAW 526    Lawyering Skills II (3)
Prerequisite: Lawyering Skills I.  A continuation of Lawyering Skills I with an increased level of sophistication in researching, analysis and writing; drafting basic transactional documents; drafting a memorandum of law; oral argument. (Research component of this course to be taught during an intensive week prior to the start of the spring semester.)

Second Year Required Courses - Fall

LAW 531    Constitutional Law I (4)
An analysis of the basic principles of constitutional law, including the nature of a written constitution, the covenantal framework of the U.S. Constitution, the Marshall legacy and judicial review, theories of interpretation, and principles of interpretivism.  Emphasis is given to the distribution of governmental powers in the federal system; separation of powers; the federal commerce, taxing, and foreign affairs powers; intergovernmental relations; due process; and equal protection.

LAW 535    Criminal Law (3)
An introduction to the general principles, sources, and purpose of criminal law, including the following doctrinal issues that apply to crimes in general: the act requirement, the mens rea requirement, causation, liability for attempted crimes, accomplice liability, defenses, and criminal code interpretation.

LAW 545     Evidence (3)
An introduction to the law of evidence and the rules and principles governing its admission within the context of the adversarial trial system. Emphasis is placed upon mastering the Federal Rules of Evidence, examination and cross-examination of witnesses, functions of the judge and the jury, and burden of proof. (NOTE: This course is a prerequisite for Virginia Third-Year Practice.)

LAW 561    Business Associations (3)
An examination of agency, partnership, and corporation concepts with emphasis on the rights and obligations of partners; and the formation, management, and operation of for-profit and nonprofit corporations.

LAW 571    Lawyering Skills III (2)
Prerequisite: Lawyering Skills II.  Students continue the pretrial development of a case.  A major focus is on drafting and arguing pretrial motions, in particular motions in limine in a civil trial.  Students also further develop skills of interviewing and witness preparation, examining witnesses, negotiating settlements and pretrial agreements.  The planning portion of the course focuses on drafting documents necessary for the effective establishment and operation of one or more business organizations.

LAW 591    Taxation of Individuals (3)
An introduction to the federal income tax system.  Topics include items of inclusion and exclusion from gross income, deductions from gross income, capital gains and losses, basic tax accounting, and the identification of income to the appropriate taxpayer.  The course gives consideration to the private attorney’s role in administering the tax law and in advising clients on the interaction of the tax law with their businesses, investments, and personal activities. This course must be taken in the fall or spring semester of the student's second year or in the fall semester of the student's third year.

Second Year Required Courses - Spring

LAW 532    Constitutional Law II (2)
Prerequisite: Constitutional Law I.  A study of the history and development of the First Amendment and the body of constitutional law including the doctrines of freedom of speech, press, peaceable assembly, the right to petition the government for the redress of grievances, and the religion clauses.

LAW 541    Criminal Procedure (3)
An introduction to the limitations imposed on law enforcement activities by the Fourth, Fifth, and Sixth Amendments of the U.S. Constitution as applied to the states through the Fourteenth Amendment.  The course considers the criminal justice process from investigation through arrest and initial court appearance.

LAW 545     Evidence (3)
An introduction to the law of evidence and the rules and principles governing its admission within the context of the adversarial trial system.  Emphasis is placed upon mastering the Federal Rules of Evidence, examination and cross-examination of witnesses, functions of the judge and the jury, and burden of proof.  (NOTE: This course is a prerequisite for Virginia Third-Year Practice.)

LAW 565    Professional Responsibility (2)
A study of the authority and duties of lawyers in the practice of their profession as advocates, mediators, and counselors; and of their responsibility to the courts, to the bar, and to their clients, including a study of the various ABA standards of professional conduct.  (NOTE: This course is a prerequisite for Virginia Third-Year Practice; it must be taken in the spring semester of the student's second year or during an intensive session.)

LAW 572    Lawyering Skills IV (2)
Prerequisite: Lawyering Skills III.  Students review and then practice the major steps in the pretrial litigation process, including litigation planning, informal fact investigation, legal research, and all facets of discovery.  Each student prepares requests for documents, interrogatories, and requests for admissions.  Each student also conducts and defends a deposition of one of the parties or witnesses in a case.  Students also draft and argue a motion to dismiss in a criminal trial.

LAW 595    Lawyering Skills V (3)
Prerequisites: Evidence; Lawyering Skills IV. The basics of trial advocacy. There is an emphasis on mastering certain litigation and trial tasks; paying attention to detail; and precision in analysis, thought, expression, and communication.

Third Year Required Courses - Fall

LAW 575    Wills, Trusts, and Estates (3)
A study of the basic devices in gratuitous transfers, including the will and trust; selected problems in class gifts, and will and trust substitutes; and social restrictions upon the power of testation, the formation of property interests, and the trust device.

LAW 595    Lawyering Skills V (3)
Prerequisites: Evidence; Lawyering Skills IV.  The basics of trial advocacy.  There is an emphasis on mastering certain litigation and trial tasks; paying attention to detail; and precision in analysis, thought, expression, and communication.

Third Year Required Courses - Spring

LAW 595    Lawyering Skills V (3)
Prerequisites: Evidence; Lawyering Skills IV. The basics of trial advocacy. There is an emphasis on mastering certain litigation and trial tasks; paying attention to detail; and precision in analysis, thought, expression, and communication.

LAW ___    Lawyering Skills VI (2-3)
The course requirements are satisfied by taking Appellate Advocacy, Business Planning, Estate Planning, Real Estate Transactions and Development, Mediation, Advanced Trial Advocacy, Public Policy Lawyering Skills, or Constitutional Litigation Clinic.
 

Elective Courses
(Subject to Availability)

Jurisprudence and Legal History

LAW 581   Jurisprudence (3)
An introduction to the many schools of jurisprudence. Jurisprudence is the study of legal philosophy. Particular emphasis is given to formulating principles of a distinctively Christian jurisprudence and on reading primary materials. (Note: This course is offered in the spring semester of odd-numbered years.)

LAW 582   Law and Economics (2)
Law and economics as a jurisprudential theory seeks to apply neoclassic economics concepts to the law. Law and economics tends to be both positive (explaining rules in terms of economics concepts) and normative (arguing that legal rules should promote economic efficiency). This course considers a variety of subject areas in order to provide a critique of law and economics from the perspective of the distinct mission of Liberty University School of Law. Possible subject areas for consideration include: property, contracts, constitutional law, human rights, family law, tort law, criminal law, employment law, corporate law, securities regulation, and taxation.

LAW 585    Legal History (3)
An examination of the nature and meaning of the legal past, particularly the Western legal tradition, with a primary focus on the historical relationship between church and state; and the biblical and theological foundations of the Western legal tradition and the English Common Law heritage.  (NOTE: This course is offered in the spring semester of even-numbered years.)

Family Law

LAW 601    Family Law (3)
A general introduction to the nature and regulation of family associations.  This course focuses on the relationships of husband and wife as well as parent and child.  It addresses moral, legal, and biblical issues relating to marriage, divorce, and custody, including international and American developments involving same-sex unions.

LAW 605    Children and the Law Seminar (2)
A study of delinquency, deprivation, status offenses, and dependency in Juvenile Court.  History of the Juvenile Court, development of children’s rights, and trends in juvenile justice.

LAW 608    Adoption Law (2)
The course explores fundamental issues in adoption law from both international and domestic perspectives. It will examine on a comparative basis the legal relationship among children and families across continents and in the state.  Students will understand the legal framework of adoption laws in states such as Virginia, Florida, Georgia, North Carolina and a few selected states, as well as processes and procedures involving adoptions in general.  Students will also learn, on a step-by-step basis, how adoption treaties in private international law are interpreted and applied in U.S. Courts.  The course will further examine issues in assisted reproduction using reproductive technology. The learning process will involve practical hands-on approach including problem solving, case law review and analysis of domestic rules and procedures for the recognition of foreign judgments in U.S. courts.

LAW 610     Child Abuse and the Law (2)
Prerequisites: Criminal Law, Criminal Procedure, and Evidence.  This is a course designed for students interested in public service and working on behalf of abused children.   Students who enroll in this course will have diverse practice interests such as, being a criminal or civil child abuse prosecutor, guardian/attorney ad litem, child protection attorney, or public interest lawyer.  The course is designed to provide an overview of the prosecution process in civil and criminal cases involving child abuse and neglect.   Students will learn the internal path of both a criminal child abuse case as well as the civil process for protecting children from further abuse or neglect.   This course will explore the necessity of working with a multidisciplinary team of professionals in preparing a case for the court process as well as the necessary skills needed to communicate with child victims.   The course will require observation of a criminal or civil child abuse case. Ethical responsibilities of prosecution will be addressed.

LAW 615    Taxation of Estates and Gifts (3)
Prerequisite: Taxation of Individuals.  An in-depth study of federal taxation of wealth transmission, including estate and gift taxes.

LAW 621    Estate Planning (3)
Prerequisites: Wills, Trusts, and Estates; Taxation of Individuals; Taxation of Estates and Gifts.  An overview of the estate planning process, including considerations entering into the structure and completion of an estate plan.  This course includes a discussion of the information-gathering process and the preparation of such estate planning documents as wills, trusts, and durable powers of attorney.  It also includes a consideration of the various methods that may be used to reduce estate taxes for the client, both through lifetime and testamentary planning.

Business Law

LAW 630    Accounting for Lawyers (2)
A study of the principles, theory, and practice of accounting, finance, and auditing. The topics include the accounting equation and conceptual framework; recognition principles; inventory and the cost of goods sold; fixed assets and depreciation; liabilities; financial statements and financial analysis; valuation principles and techniques; audit practice; perspectives and the role of the lawyer in the preceding topics. Students who have already taken any accounting course (at the undergraduate or graduate level of three credit hours or more) are not eligible to enroll in this course. This course is offered as an intensive.

LAW 637    Basic Uniform Commercial Code (3)
A study of the Uniform Commercial Code with an emphasis on Articles 3, 4, and 9 covering general principles applicable to promissory notes and drafts, bank deposits and collections, and secured transactions.

LAW 641    Taxation of Businesses (3)
Prerequisites: Business Associations; Taxation of Individuals.  An advanced course in federal income taxation with emphasis on tax laws related to corporations, partnerships, and limited liability companies.

LAW 643    Mergers and Acquisitions (2)
Prerequisite: Business Associations; Corequisite: Taxation of Businesses.
A study of the process of and the law governing business combinations and acquisitions including mergers, stock purchases, assets sales, and change-of-control transactions.  The course will consider primarily the role of state business organization law and federal securities law in determining the structure, mechanics, timing, and price of such transactions.

LAW 644    Securities Regulation (3)
Prerequisite: Business Associations. A study of the process of and the law governing the issuance, distribution, and trading of securities focusing primarily on the Securities Act of 1933 and the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and related rules and regulations.  Topics include the definition of a “security;” the obligation to register; the registration and disclosure requirements; the exemptions from the registration process; and the insider trading and antifraud provisions.

LAW 645    Business Planning (3)
Prerequisites: Business Associations; Taxation of Individuals; Taxation of Businesses.  A general survey of the factors to be considered in the organization, financing, operation, and liquidation of the small business venture, all examined within a choice of business entity frameworks.  Proprietorships, partnerships, limited partnerships, limited liability companies, business trusts, close corporations and professional corporations are covered.  Particular emphasis is on the practical aspect of the organization, operation, purchase, and sale of a business, and other matters related to the role of a practicing lawyer in business affairs.

LAW 648    Law of Nonprofits (2)
This course includes the study of the state and federal law affecting nonprofit entities, churches and parachurch ministries.  Topics covered include formation, exempt purposes, private inurement, board governance, compensation, fundraising and financial regulation, charitable contributions, lobbying, political activity, electioneering, unrelated business income, employment law, church-specific matters, and international law, activities and structure.

LAW 651    Real Estate Transactions and Development (3)
Prerequisites: Property I and II.  A course in the application of real property law, covering deeds, mortgages, leases, land contracts, real estate closings, and financing in the context of simple transactions; and of the development of a shopping plaza or housing complex.  

LAW 655    Bankruptcy (3)
Prerequisite: Business Associations.  A course covering the history and philosophy of the Bankruptcy Acts and Bankruptcy Rules as interpreted by the United States Supreme Court and the other inferior courts.  It includes relief under chapters 7, 11, and 13 of the Bankruptcy Code; complaints; motions; and applications.  It deals extensively with the rights and duties of debtors and creditors.

LAW 661    Intellectual Property (3)
An introduction to the basic principles of the law of copyrights, trademarks, patents, and unfair competition.  An overview of the U.S. legal systems that protect creations of the mind: inventions, trade secrets, artistic creations, computer software, brand names, and image/persona, with primary focus on patent, copyright, trademark, and trade secret law.  It serves as a basic building block for more advanced intellectual property courses.

LAW 665    Entertainment Law (2)
An introduction to the basic legal, business, and financial aspects of the entertainment industry including comparisons and contrasts between the motion picture, television, literature, music, and digital industries.  In addition to covering general legal concepts relevant to the entertainment industry, students will achieve an understanding of selected topics and transactions germane to this area of law.  Customs and practices within the entertainment industry, as well as various legal scenarios, will be examined.

LAW 826    Real Property Litigation (1)
Prerequisites: Property I and Property II
The course will undertake a selective examination of real estate disputes for litigation or transactional oriented future attorney-practitioners.  The planning of real estate transactions is enhanced with a view toward the pitfalls of litigation in mind.  An emphasis will be on the common disputes a practitioner typically handles during their career: disputes related to landlord-tenant, common interest communities, the real estate purchase-sale contract, and foreclosure.

Constitutional Law and Jurisdiction

LAW  705    First Amendment Law Seminar (2)
Prerequisites:  Constitutional Law I and II.  A study of the history and development of the First Amendment and the body of Constitutional law including the doctrines of freedom of religion, speech, press, peaceable assembly, the right to petition the government for a redress of grievances, and the balance between church and state.

LAW 711    Federal Jurisdiction (3)
Prerequisite: Constitutional Law I.  A study of the federal judicial system.  Topics include separation of powers; federalism; Congressional power to curtail federal jurisdiction; the case and controversy requirement as it relates to doctrines of standing, ripeness, and mootness; sovereign immunity; Congressional power to abrogate Eleventh Amendment immunity; Ex Parte Young doctrine; Section 1983 litigation; absolute and qualified immunity in suits against state and federal officers; and abstention doctrine.  An analysis of the Constitutional and legislative foundations of the judicial power of the U.S.

LAW 715    Conflict of Laws (2)
Prerequisite: Constitutional Law I.  A study of the conflicts arising in many cases that have connections with more than one state, or with a state and a foreign country, or that involve both state and federal interests.  It explores the principles that courts use in selecting the proper law to apply in such cases under the American system of divided sovereignty—divided both horizontally among states and vertically between state and federal governments.

LAW 721    State and Local Government (3)
Prerequisite: Constitutional Law I.  An overview of the nature, structure, powers and liabilities of state governments and their political subdivisions, including the interrelationships among administrative agencies and municipal, county, and state governments.

LAW 725    School Law Seminar (2)
Prerequisite: Constitutional Law II.  A survey of the law relating to public, private, and home education.  Emphasis is placed on the legal framework for public education, the First Amendment and other Constitutional issues related to the public schools, and the nature of parental rights in the context of public education.

LAW 740    Israel and Middle Eastern International Law and Policy (3)
This course will cover a wide range of topics including the historical and biblical history of Israel leading up to the British Mandate (1920-1948), the Zionist Movement, and the Declaration of Independence in 1948. Students will learn about the foundation of Israel and the history of the United Nations in relationship to Israel, including the history of the land and the 1967 and 1973 conflicts. The course will overview Arab-Israeli conflicts and co-existence.  Students will be exposed to the geo-political issues Israel faces with its neighbors and the rest of the world, including the conflicts between radical Islamic factions and the West with specific focus on Israel.  The course will include onsite visits to biblical and historical sites throughout Israel, including visits to the Knesset, the Supreme Court, and Yad Vashem. In addition to assigned Israeli and American faculty, students will hear lectures and interact with prominent Israeli figures from a variety of pertinent fields. This course is Pass/Fail.

LAW 741    International Law (3)
Corequisite: Constitutional Law I.  A survey of public international law, its nature, sources, and application.  Addressed are: international agreements, international organizations, states and recognition, nationality and alien rights, territorial and maritime jurisdiction, state responsibility and international claims including expropriation and the act of state doctrine, the laws of war, and the developing law of human rights.

LAW 743    International Human Rights (2)
Prerequisite: Constitutional Law I. An introduction to complex legal issues in international human rights, including a discussion of the Christian and secular views of the source of individual rights, survey of selected human rights concerns, examination and analysis of international human rights treaties, the role of international and regional human rights systems, non-governmental organizations, international decisions of tribunals and human rights courts, and prevention of human rights violations.  Learning method will be through research and seminar-type presentations.

LAW 745    International Business Transactions (2)
A study of selected international legal issues affecting or regulating multinational enterprise, foreign investment, the banking system, trade in goods and services, labor matters, intellectual property, sales transactions, transportation, and trade financing.

LAW 747     Immigration Law and Policy (2)
This course is an overview of immigration law and policy in the United States. Migration policy has long provoked controversy and has become even more contentious in the new era of homeland security since September 11, 2001. Immigration bills in Congress have been the subject of heated debates, particularly in recent years. However, to have a truly informed opinion on the subject, one must understand the history of immigration law in the United States, the statutory framework into which any new legislation must fit, and the legal process used to enforce U.S. immigration law. This course will examine federal immigration law and policy in a variety of its aspects--contemporary and historical, substantive and procedural, statutory and regulatory and constitutional--including the criteria for admission to the United States on a temporary or permanent basis, the grounds and process of deportation, the peculiar constitutional status of foreign nationals, the role of the courts in ensuring the legality of official action, and an introduction to refugee law.

LAW 755    Bioethics and the Law (3)
The course involves the study of law, policy, and litigation issues relating to stem cell and cloning research, abortion, reproductive technologies such as in vitro fertilization, and euthanasia.  Course material includes case studies, legislative and regulatory reviews, the reports of specialized task forces and professional panels, and historic analyses.  The course will also review litigation and policy developments in these respective areas.

LAW 760    Public Policy Lawyering Skills (2)
A study of selected law skills involved in the public policy arena, drawn from the following areas: drafting legislation; drafting memoranda in support of legislation; planning and creating legal structures necessary to operate election campaigns, to comply with on-going campaign finance and disclosure laws, and to dissolve campaigns; planning and operating political campaigns and lobbying organizations; and complying with disclosure requirements by organizations that involve themselves in public policy matters.

LAW 761    Public Policy Survey (2)
An introduction to public policy that examines the effect of worldview on both the objects and means of creating public policy.  The course will use substantive public policy, policy initiatives, bills, legislative history, case law, white papers, and public relation campaigns to provide an understanding of the various methods, tactics, and strategies used in transforming ideas into governing policy and will prepare students to analyze both the substance of public policy and the policy creation process.  

LAW 765    Sexual Behavior and the Law (2)
A survey of the relationship between various types of human sexual behavior and law, including employment law, education law, criminal law, family law, civil rights legislation, and the constitutional guarantees of equal protection and freedom of religion, speech, and association. The course will explore sexual behavior and notions of sexual morality through a biblical, historical, and anthropological prism and consider how the law, public policy, and culture approaches the sexual choices that people make.

Administrative Law

LAW 771    Administrative Law (3)
Prerequisite: Constitutional Law I.  A study of the processes by which legislative and administrative policy is translated into law and applied by the responsible administrative agencies.  Topics include analysis of informal and formal procedures, separation of powers, delegation, statutory construction, rule making, and adjudication.  

LAW 781    Employment Law (3)
A survey of common law and federal and state statutes regulating the relationship between an employer and an employee.  Subjects include the hiring process, termination, terms and conditions of employment, disability unemployment, and retirement.

LAW 785    Land Use and Zoning (3)
A selective examination of governmental regulation of the use of real estate and of the land development industry.  It is fundamentally a course in applied Constitutional and administrative law.  While it includes the law of nuisance, zoning, density, growth, and subdivision controls, it is a vehicle for exploring the public regulation of business behavior in general, including various strategies for deregulation.

LAW 826    Real Property Litigation (1)
Prerequisites: Property I and Property II
The course will undertake a selective examination of real estate disputes for litigation or transactional oriented future attorney-practitioners.  The planning of real estate transactions is enhanced with a view toward the pitfalls of litigation in mind.  An emphasis will be on the common disputes a practitioner typically handles during their career: disputes related to landlord-tenant, common interest communities, the real estate purchase-sale contract, and foreclosure.

Property Law

LAW 511    Torts I (3)  
A study of intentional torts against persons and property and the privileges thereto.  It focuses on the basic principles of negligence and other standards of care.

LAW 512    Torts II (2)
Prerequisite: Torts I.  A survey of the remaining issues in negligence including particular duties of landowners, damages, joint and several liability, and defenses.  It also deals with products liability, wrongful death, vicarious liability, and nuisance.

LAW 515    Property I (2)
A study of the fundamental precepts applicable to real and personal property.  Aspects of real property covered are possessory estates and interests, as well as joint and concurrent ownership.

LAW 516    Property II (3)
Prerequisite: Property I.  A study of the rights, duties, and liabilities of landlords and tenants; acquisition, ownership, and transfer of property; rights of possession; donative transactions; issues in the conveyancing system; and governmental regulations.

LAW 575    Wills, Trusts, and Estates (3)
A study of the basic devices in gratuitous transfers, including the will and trust; selected problems in class gifts, and will and trust substitutes; and social restrictions upon the power of testation, the formation of property interests, and the trust device.

LAW 582   Law and Economics (2)
Law and economics as a jurisprudential theory seeks to apply neoclassic economics concepts to the law. Law and economics tends to be both positive (explaining rules in terms of economics concepts) and normative (arguing that legal rules should promote economic efficiency). This course considers a variety of subject areas in order to provide a critique of law and economics from the perspective of the distinct mission of Liberty University School of Law. Possible subject areas for consideration include: property, contracts, constitutional law, human rights, family law, tort law, criminal law, employment law, corporate law, securities regulation, and taxation.

LAW 651    Real Estate Transactions and Development (3)
Prerequisites: Property I and II.  A course in the application of real property law, covering deeds, mortgages, leases, land contracts, real estate closings, and financing in the context of simple transactions; and of the development of a shopping plaza or housing complex.

LAW 661    Intellectual Property (3)
An introduction to the basic principles of the law of copyrights, trademarks, patents, and unfair competition.  An overview of the U.S. legal systems that protect creations of the mind: inventions, trade secrets, artistic creations, computer software, brand names, and image/persona, with primary focus on patent, copyright, trademark, and trade secret law.  It serves as a basic building block for more advanced intellectual property courses.

LAW 785    Land Use and Zoning (3)
A selective examination of governmental regulation of the use of real estate and of the land development industry.  It is fundamentally a course in applied Constitutional and administrative law.  While it includes the law of nuisance, zoning, density, growth, and subdivision controls, it is a vehicle for exploring the public regulation of business behavior in general, including various strategies for deregulation.

LAW 826    Real Property Litigation (1)
Prerequisites: Property I and Property II
The course will undertake a selective examination of real estate disputes for litigation or transactional oriented future attorney-practitioners.  The planning of real estate transactions is enhanced with a view toward the pitfalls of litigation in mind.  An emphasis will be on the common disputes a practitioner typically handles during their career: disputes related to landlord-tenant, common interest communities, the real estate purchase-sale contract, and foreclosure.

Trial Practice

LAW 542 Advanced Criminal Procedure (3)
Prerequisite: Criminal Procedure
This course examines the process of the adjudicatory stages of criminal procedure, beginning with the pre-trial detention and continuing through trial and sentencing.  Topics that will be covered in this course include; pre-trial detention, initiating the charging decision, bail and pretrial release, grand jury practice,  discovery, the plea, speedy trial rights, right to counsel, trial by jury, the criminal trial, double jeopardy, sentencing, and post conviction relief.  For a student pursuing a career with a concentration in criminal practice, this course is best taken immediately subsequent to Criminal Procedure and prior to a criminal law externship.  

LAW 801    Remedies (3)
A study of the law of judicial remedies, both legal and equitable, focusing on the nature and scope of relief as distinguished from substantive and procedural law.  The four major categories of remedies are addressed: damages, including measurement issues for both compensatory and punitive damages, and limitations on the damages remedy; restitution, including measurement issues and issues related to rescission, constructive trust and equitable lien; injunctions, including issues relating to requirements for obtaining preliminary and permanent injunctive; and declaratory relief, including ancillary remedies to effectuate the relief obtained, and legal and equitable defenses.

LAW 802    Virginia Practice (1)
Prerequisite: Third year status. This course will emphasize practical and substantive issues of Virginia law that are common to everyday practice. Students will be expected to apply Virginia law to articulate answers to common legal issues that arise in Virginia practice. The course includes a writing component.

LAW 803    Virginia Civil Procedure (2)
Prerequisite: Civil Procedure I and II. This course covers Virginia civil procedural law for both law and equitable claims, including applicable statutes, rules of court and cases interpreting the statutes and rules. Appellate procedure for both the Court of Appeals of Virginia and the Supreme Court of Virginia are covered.

LAW 804    Virginia Criminal Procedure (1)
Prerequisite: Criminal Law. A review of the Virginia statutes and Rules of Court governing criminal procedure in Virginia. Covers Virginia Code Title 19.2 and Rules of the Supreme Court of Virginia, Parts 1, 3A, 5 & 5A [the latter two dealing with appellate procedure for criminal cases] together with some of the cases dealing with the statutes and rules. Topics include jurisdiction, venue, pre-trial motions and procedures, competency and insanity issues, trial, sentencing and appeals. 

LAW 805    Insurance Law (3)
A study of the regulation of the insurance business, insurable interest, the insurance contract, the interests protected by contracts of insurance, construction of policies, rights under the policies, subrogation; and processing of claims and suits for insureds, claimants, and insurers.

LAW 815    Law Office Management (2)
An introduction to the establishment and management of a law office.  It is designed to prepare the student for entry into the private practice of law, including ethical and personal pressures related to private law practice.

LAW 821    Mediation (2)
Prerequisite: Lawyering Skills V.  A course on dispute resolution, building on the foundation of Lawyering Skills V, using a mixture of lecture, discussion, role-playing, and analysis of video.  A lawyer’s primary task is to resolve disputes.  Most controversies never reach trial; rather, they are settled by agreement.  The ability to negotiate and mediate effectively is crucial for all attorneys.  

LAW 825    Advanced Trial Advocacy (3)
Prerequisites: Evidence; Lawyering Skills V.  A course building on the foundation of Lawyering Skills V.  Develops courtroom skills through simulated trials.  Focus is on opening statement, direct and cross-examination, and closing argument.

LAW 831    Appellate Advocacy (2)
Prerequisites: Lawyering Skills I and II.  An introduction to the mechanics of appellate brief-writing and oral argument by engaging in simulated oral arguments.  It is designed to develop clear and persuasive communication skills through written and oral advocacy. (NOTE: This course is offered in the Fall Semester and is designed for those who are interested in participating in Moot Court.) 

LAW 832    Advanced Appellate Advocacy (1)
Prerequisite: Competed in the 2L/3L Liberty Cup Moot Court Tournament.  This course requires research of unique legal issues, preparation of an appellate brief, preparation of at least two oral arguments, and participation in an intercollegiate moot court tournament.  Successful completion of the course will be determined by the Moot Court Faculty Advisor based on the student’s preparation for the tournament and demonstrated competence in both the written and oral skills.  A student may earn only one credit in this course per semester, and a maximum of two credits total. Course credit is pass/fail.

LAW 833    Trial Team (1)
Corequisite:  This course is for those students who try out for and are chosen to be on the Trial Team.  Team members will engage in an intense study of trial strategy and preparation, direct and cross examination, opening statements and closing arguments, pretrial motions, arguing and opposing objections, and all aspects of trial advocacy.  Team members will be chosen to compete in state, regional, and national trial competitions.  Students who compete in a competition may earn one credit in this course per semester.  A student may earn a maximum of 2 credits while on the team.  Course credit is pass/fail.

Study Outside the Classroom

LAW 851    Constitutional Litigation Clinic (2)
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor is required and availability is limited.  Students will be provided a hands-on experience in Constitutional litigation representing actual clients and preparing and prosecuting a lawsuit at the trial and/or appellate level. Students share responsibility for the management of a case under supervision of a member of the faculty and licensed attorneys and staff with Liberty Counsel. Students will be expected to research, write legal arguments, and engage in critical thinking in order to prosecute a case.  Coursework encompasses civil procedure, evidence, substantive law, law office management, ethics, and professional responsibility. 

LAW 855 Prosecution Clinic (2)
Prerequisites: Permission from the Bedford Commonwealth Attorney and the Associate Dean for Academic Affairs; and Virginia Third-Year Practice Certificate required.  Students will work under the direct supervision of a faculty supervisor and the Bedford Commonwealth Attorney’s Office and will be involved in all aspects of criminal prosecution. Students will be exposed to the role and responsibilities of a prosecutor while engaging in the hands-on experiences of a working prosecutor. Students will be encouraged to think critically about the prosecutor’s role in the criminal justice system.  The Clinic will also contain a classroom component where students will cover subject matter that includes: the role of the prosecutor, ethics, plea bargaining, motions and hearings, discovery and examination of witnesses. Students may conduct legal research and writing, write motions and briefs and give oral arguments.

LAW 861    Externship (2)
Prerequisites:  Second-year standing; approval of the Associate Dean for Academic Affairs.  Externs earn academic credit while working part time in government, public interest, non-profit or for-profit institutions.  Externs work under the supervision of qualified and experienced attorneys and the Externship Director who provide guidance and training in practical lawyering skills.  Classroom component (case rounds) covers topics relating to the legal system, judicial process and professionalism.  

LAW 862    Criminal Law Externship (2)
Prerequisites: Qualify for third-year practice in Virginia (3L students); approval of the Associate Dean for Academic Affairs. Students earn academic credit while working part time in a Commonwealth’s Attorney’s Office, Public Defender's Office or private practice under the supervision of an attorney in that office and the Externship Director.  Students receive guidance and training in lawyering skills, interview and prepare witnesses for trial and appear in court. Classroom component (case rounds) covers topics relating to the legal system, judicial process and professionalism.

LAW 863    Judicial Clerks Externship (2)
Prerequisites: Second-year standing; approval of the Associate Dean for Academic Affairs. Students earn academic credit while working part time under the supervision of a judge and his or her staff attorneys and the Externship Director.  Students receive guidance and training in legal research and writing, write research memoranda, and draft opinions for judges. Classroom component (case rounds) covers topics relating to the legal system, judicial process and professionalism.

LAW 868    Directed Research in Law and Policy (2)
Prerequisites: Second-year standing; approval of the Associate Dean for Academic Affairs. Includes components of an externship, with real-life legal work generated by the client of a supervising externship attorney, and an independent study, with research and writing covering subject matter comparable to that in other academic activities.

LAW 871    Independent Study (1-3)
Prerequisites:  Second year standing; approval of a professor-advisor and the Associate Dean for Academic Affairs; satisfy the requirements in §07.14 of the academic Policies and Procedures.  A supervised research and writing course that covers subject matter comparable to that in other academic activities with minimum faculty guidance.  Guidelines are published in the Academic Standards Policies and Procedures.

Other

LAW 881    Law Review Candidacy (1)
Prerequisites:  Second year standing; membership is by invitation only based upon the student’s demonstration of advanced academic and writing ability and criteria set forth in the Liberty University Law Review Constitution.  Participation in law review activities in the fall semester includes writing a note or comment judged to meet the acceptable or publishable standard, editing student written notes and comments, editing articles and other scholarly legal writings, and performing other editorial and staff duties pursuant to the Liberty University Law Review Constitution.  P/NP grade.

LAW 882    Law Review Junior Staff (1)
Prerequisites: Second year standing; satisfactory completion of Law Review Candidacy. Participation in law review activities in the spring semester includes editing student written notes and comments, editing articles and other scholarly legal writings, and performing other editorial and staff duties pursuant to the Liberty University Law Review Constitution. P/NP grade. 

LAW 883    Law Review Senior Staff I (1) 
Prerequisites: Third year standing; satisfactory completion of Law Review Junior Staff. Participation in law review activities includes writing a comment judged to meet the acceptable or publishable standard, editing student written notes and comments, editing articles and other scholarly legal writings, and performing other staff duties pursuant to the Liberty University Law Review Constitution. P/NP grade. 

LAW 884    Law Review Senior Staff II (1) 
Prerequisites: Third year standing; satisfactory completion of Law Review Senior Staff I. Participation in law review activities includes editing student written notes and comments, editing articles and other scholarly legal writings, and performing other staff duties pursuant to the Liberty University Law Review Constitution. P/NP grade. 

LAW 885    Law Review Editorial Board I (2)
Prerequisites: Third year standing; satisfactory completion of Law Review Junior Staff; elected as a member of the Liberty University Law Review Editorial Board. Participation in law review activities includes managing the law review, participating in the activities of the editorial board, writing a comment judged to meet the acceptable or publishable standard, editing and publishing student written notes and comments, reviewing, selecting, editing, and publishing articles and other scholarly legal writings, and performing other editorial and staff duties pursuant to the Liberty University Law Review Constitution. P/NP grade. 

LAW 886    Law Review Editorial Board II (2)
Prerequisites: Third year standing; satisfactory completion of Law Review Editorial Board I; membership on the Liberty University Law Review Editorial Board. Participation in law review activities includes managing the law review, participating in the activities of the editorial board, editing and publishing student written notes and comments, reviewing, selecting, editing, and publishing articles and other scholarly legal writings, and performing other editorial and staff duties pursuant to the Liberty University Law Review Constitution. P/NP grade.

LAW 901    Advanced Bar Studies (3)
Prerequisite: Third year standing. Advanced Bar Studies is a skills-development course that provides students with an intensive substantive review of selected legal material routinely tested on the bar examination. The course uses problems and exercises in a bar examination format to familiarize students with techniques for answering bar examination multiple choice questions.

LAW 904    Advanced Research and Writing (2)
Advanced Research and Writing provides advanced instruction in legal research techniques and hones the writing skills learned in LS I and II. Students will draft a variety of common, legal documents used in litigation and transactional work.