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LBTS Writing Guide

(based on the 8th edition of the Turabian manual)

Liberty University Baptist Theological Seminary requires each student to submit their papers using the latest edition of Kate L. Turabian’s, A Manual for Writers. LBTS offers a condensed version for students as an introduction to the topic: Writing Guide, Sacred Book References List, and Capitalization Glossary.


Formatting

  • One-inch margins
  • Times New Roman size 12-pt. type font except in the footnotes when you are to have Times New Roman 10-pt. font.
  • Double-spaced except in the footnotes, block quotes, and other exceptions.[1]
  • Block quotations should be blocked if any amount if the quote is over four lines, and the left margin should be indented one-half inch. Therefore, a four-line quotation can remain in the body of the text without being blocked.
  • Pagination placement: Front matter is numbered with roman numerals centered in the footer. The paper body, bibliography, and appendices display Arabic numerals in the header flushed right. Do not number the title page. You can find a tutorial on pagination placement from Microsoft.
  • LBTS Standardized Title Page

  • LBTS Sample Turabian Paper

 

Style

  • Use active voice, and avoid first person pronouns unless permitted by the assignment instructions. In historical writing, use simple past tense verbs, but when referring to an author’s written work, use present tense.
  • Turabian permits two citation styles. LBTS only accepts notes-bibliography style in submitted documents. When using this style, only use footnotes rather than endnotes. Do not use both citation styles within a document.
  • LBTS still uses superscript numbers for footnotes. An example of a superscripted footnote number looks like this “1,” whereas the incorrect numbering is “1.”
  • When footnoting, indent the first line of your footnote. The indentation should be before the superscripted footnote number. The footnotes should be single-spaced, but there should be 6-pt. spacing beneath the footnote. In order to format your paper using 6-pt. spacing, highlight the footnote, right-click on your highlighted space, click the paragraph option, and then with the spacing option change it to on 6 pt. spacing in the “after” option.
  • “Ibid.” is short for the Latin term ibidem meaning “in the same place.” When referring to a source whose bibliographical data are in the footnote prior, use “Ibid.” Do not include a page number if you are citing the same page as the previous; however, if it is a different page number use “Ibid.” plus a comma and then the page number like this, “Ibid., #.”
  • Since the Bible is considered a sacred work, cite it initially in the footnotes and subsequently in parenthetical references. Do not include the Bible in the bibliography. The exception to this rule is when you are citing notes from a study Bible, which should in turn be referenced in the bibliography. An example for properly footnoting a biblical citation is in the footnote at the bottom of this page.[2] Notice the phrasing of the footnote, “Unless otherwise noted, all biblical passages referenced are in the ____ Version.” This means that you will not need to reference the version of the Bible in subsequent citations unless you change the version.[3]
  • When footnoting a book for the second time and the citation is not concurrent with the first citation, you do not need a full citation. Instead use the author’s last name(s), an abbreviated version of the book title (in four words or less), and the page number. An example of this is in the footnote below for a source titled Leading, Teaching, and Making Disciples.[4]
  • When citing an article from an online library/search engine, you do not need to cite the search engine or article address if the article is in the same form as it would have been in a print journal (typically you can tell this is the case if the online article is downloadable into a .pdf). If you need to cite the link to the article it is preferred that you cite the article using the Digital Object Identifier (DOI).[5] If there is no DOI make sure that you are using a permalink rather than a link copied and pasted from your address bar.[6] If you signed into the Library using a username and password then the address from the address bar will not work for anyone who does not have your username/password.
  • Writing and preaching are two different communicational mediums with two distinct purposes. When writing an academic assignment, avoid the temptation to “sermonize.” Eliminate any use of “you” or “us,” and do not appeal to your reader’s emotions or character.

 

Grammar Usage Notes

  • Avoid using the em-dash ( — ) which is used in place of a comma to separate thoughts in a sentence. If it is necessary, make sure you understand the grammatical reasoning behind using this form of punctuation.
  • Bible is the title of a book whereas biblical is an adjective and biblically is an adverb. Bible should be capitalized, but biblical and biblically should not be capitalized. The same is true of Scripture in the nominal form versus the adjectival or adverbial form. See the Capitalization Glossary for more examples of common capitalization mistakes. 
  • The abbreviation, i.e., means “that is” and should be used in parentheses when providing a point of clarification.
  • The abbreviation, e.g., means “example” and should be used in parentheses when giving an example.
  • [sic] should appear directly after an error in a quotation because quotations need to be cited verbatim (including errors), but you do not want to suffer the point reduction of an error. Therefore, [sic] lets the reader know that you purposefully copied over the error because it was in the original citation.

 

Levels of Headings

Here is the expected level of headings for LBTS papers. The level explanation below also provides an example of what each level should look like. All headings are to remain Times New Roman 12-pt. font. When providing a sectional heading, the heading should have two empty, single-line spaces above it and one empty, single-line spaces below.

 

First Level: Centered, Boldface, Headline-Style Capitalization

Second Level: Centered, Regular Type, Headline-Style Capitalization

Third Level: Flush Left, Boldface, Headline-Style Capitalization

Fourth level: Flush left, roman type, sentence-style capitalization

Fifth level: Indent ½ inch for run in at beginning of paragraph (no blank line after), boldface or italic type, sentence-style capitalization, terminal period. Start first sentence here.

 

Footnote Citations

Book with a Single Author or Editor

               1 Gary R. Habermas, The Risen Jesus and Future Hope (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2003), 65.

 

Book with Multiple Authors

              1 David Bagget and Jerry L. Walls, Good God: The Theistic Foundations of Morality (New York: Oxford University Press, 2011), 79.

 

Kindle/E-Reader Book

              1 Dave Earley and Rod Dempsey, Disciple Making Is . . . : How to Live the Great Commission with Passion and Confidence (Nashville: B&H Publishers, 2013), 103, Kindle.

Journal Article in Print

              1 Klaus D. Issler, “Inner Core Belief Formation, Spiritual Practices, and the Willing-Doing Gap,” Journal of Spiritual Formation & Soul Care 2, no. 2 (Fall 2009): 180.

 

Journal Article Online

              1 Brian T. Scalise, “Perichoresis in Gregory Nazianzen and Maximus the Confessor,” Eleutheria 2, no. 2 (2012): 72, accessed August 8, 2013, http://digitalcommons.liberty.edu/eleu/ vol2/iss1/5/.

 

Dissertation

              1 A. Chadwick Thornhill, “To the Jew First: A Socio-Historical and Biblical-Theological Analysis of the Pauline Teaching of ‘Election’ in Light of Second Temple Jewish Patterns of Thought” (PhD diss., Liberty University Baptist Theological Seminary, 2013), 189.

 

Volume in multi-volume set with translator

            1 Aloys Grillmeier, From the Apostolic Age to Chalcedon (451), vol. 1 of Christ in the Christian Tradition, 2nd rev. ed., trans. John Bowden (Atlanta: John Knox Press, 1975), 260.

 

Article or Chapter in an Edited Book

            1 Sergius Bulgakov, “The Virgin and the Saints in Orthodoxy,” in Eastern Orthodox Theology: A Contemporary Reader, ed. Daniel B. Clendenin (Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 1995), 68.

 

Reference Works (omit from bibliography):

            1 Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary, rev., updated, and expanded, s.v., “Romans, Letter to the.”

 

Bibliography Citations

 

Book with a Single Author or Editor

 

Habermas, Gary R. The Risen Jesus and Future Hope. Lanham, MD: Rowman &

          Littlefield Publishers, 2003.

 

Book with Multiple Authors

 

Bagget, David, and Jerry L. Walls. Good God: The Theistic Foundations of Morality.

          New York: Oxford University Press, 2011.

 

Kindle/E-Reader Book

 

Earley, Dave, and Rod Dempsey. Disciple Making Is . . . : How to Live the Great Commission

          with Passion and Confidence. Nashville: B&H Publishers, 2013, Kindle.

 

Journal Article in Print

 

Issler, Klaus D. “Inner Core Belief Formation, Spiritual Practices, and the Willing-Doing Gap.”

          Journal of Spiritual Formation & Soul Care 2, no. 2 (2009): 179-198.

 

Journal Article Online

 

Scalise, Brian T. “Perichoresis in Gregory Nazianzen and Maximus the Confessor.” Eleutheria 2,

           no. 2 (2012): 58-76. Accessed August 8, 2013.

           http://digitalcommons.liberty.edu/eleu/ vol2/iss1/5/.
 

Dissertation

 

Thornhill, A. Chadwick. “To the Jew First: A Socio-Historical and Biblical-Theological

         Analysis of the Pauline Teaching of ‘Election’ in Light of Second Temple Jewish Patterns

         of Thought.” PhD diss., Liberty Baptist Theological Seminary, 2013.

 

Volume in multi-volume set with translator

 

Grillmeier, Aloys. From the Apostolic Age to Chalcedon (451). Vol. 1 of Christ in the

          Christian Tradition. 2nd rev. ed. Translated by John Bowden. Atlanta:

          John Knox Press, 1975.

 

Article or Chapter in an Edited Book

 

Bulgakov, Sergius. “The Virgin and the Saints in Orthodoxy.” In Eastern Orthodox Theology:

         A Contemporary Reader, 65–75. Edited by Daniel B. Clendenin. Grand Rapids:

        Baker Books, 1995.

 

Bibliography Tips

  • Use the term Bibliography for your final list of bibliographic entries. Other terms such as References or Works Cited are not acceptable.
  • Bold the title, center it, and begin a new page with normal page numbering.
  • Use a ½-inch hanging indention.  
  • Use single-line spacing with a 12-pt. space between entries, which can be added by going to the paragraph option in Microsoft Word and adding a 12-pt. line space afterwards.
  • Only cite sources directly referenced in the body of your paper. Do not cite works that have only been consulted.


[1] Kate L. Turabian, A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, 8th ed., rev. by Wayne C. Booth, et al. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2013).

[2] Unless otherwise noted, all biblical passages referenced are in the New American Standard Bible (Anaheim, CA: Foundation, 1998). 

[3] Turabian, Manual, 16.2.3.

[4] Mitchell, Making Disciples, 235.

[5] For more information on the DOI see Turabian, Manual, 15.4.1.3.

[6] A permalink is a hyperlink that is not directly copied from your web browser address bar. Instead it is typically provided by a search engine. The permalink will allow readers of your work to find the article you are referencing without being sent to your institution’s login screen. LBTS students can find permalinks in the majority of Liberty’s online library sources.

modified 11/22/2013